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Partic. vol. 41 pp. 20-29 (December 2018)
doi: 10.1016/j.partic.2017.12.016

Synthesis and characterization of (Ni, Sb)-co-doped rutile ceramic pigment via mechanical activation-assisted solid-state reaction

Shi Zhang, Zhidong Pan*, Yanmin Wang*

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    • Ni/Sb-co-doped rutile pigment was prepared via mechanical activation and solid-state route. • Mechanical activation favors the formation of new phases, i.e., brookite/rutile. • Mechanical activation decreased rutile formation temperature. • Mechanical activation improved the color performance of pigments.


(Ni, Sb)-co-doped rutile yellow ceramic pigments were synthesized via a mechanical activation-assisted solid-state reaction in a stirred bead mill. The effects of mechanical grinding of the raw materials on the synthesis of (Ni, Sb)-co-doped rutile pigment were investigated. The results show that mechanical activation effectively decreased the crystallinity of the mixed precursors, thus enhancing their reactivity and the migration rate of ions. These effects lowered the temperature required for formation of the rutile phase. Compared with results from a mixture of separately ground precursors, the mixture of raw materials ground together was more effective for accelerating nickel/antimony ions doping into the TiO2 structure and improved the color performance of the pigment. The pigment from the mixed raw materials ground for 2.0 h and heat-treated at 1100 °C could be used as an environmentally-friendly ceramic yellow pigment owing to its low-toxicity, bright yellow hue, good chemical/thermal durability, and high cost-effectiveness.

Graphical abstract


Mechanical activation; Solid-state synthesis; (Ni, Sb)-co-doped rutile; Ceramic pigment