Synthesis of mesoporous tin dioxide via sol-gel process assisted by resorcinol–formaldehyde gel
Kornkamol Banjerdteerakul, Paravee Vas-Umnuay, Varong Pavarajarn*
Tin dioxide is a useful n-type oxide semiconductor used in a variety of applications owing to its superior optical, electrical, and multifunctional properties. Here, we used a network of resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF) gel to synthesize mesoporous tin dioxide via a sol–gel process. The effects of various synthesis parameters on the morphology and mesoporosity of the obtained product were investigated, including aging time of the RF gel, tin-to-formaldehyde molar ratio, resorcinol-to-carbonate molar ratio, and the aging time of the tin/RF mixed gel. Our experimental results showed that the interaction between the network of the RF gel and tin-containing sol is a key factor that affected the structural strength of the porous network and the porosity of the final product. Through control of the interactions in the tin/RF mixed gel we obtained porous tin dioxide materials that could be effectively used to form large-surface area films with desirable mesoporous properties.
Tin dioxide; Mesoporous; Resorcinol–formaldehyde gel; Synthesis