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Partic. vol. 37 pp. 26-32 (April 2018)
doi: 10.1016/j.partic.2017.07.006

Synthesis of mesoporous tin dioxide via sol-gel process assisted by resorcinol–formaldehyde gel

Kornkamol Banjerdteerakul, Paravee Vas-Umnuay, Varong Pavarajarn*

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    • Resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF) gel was used a template to synthesize mesoporous tin dioxide. • Surface area and mesoporosity of the products could be controlled by the synthesis parameters. • Interactions between RF network and tin-containing sol were the key factor affecting mesoporosity.


Tin dioxide is a useful n-type oxide semiconductor used in a variety of applications owing to its superior optical, electrical, and multifunctional properties. Here, we used a network of resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF) gel to synthesize mesoporous tin dioxide via a sol–gel process. The effects of various synthesis parameters on the morphology and mesoporosity of the obtained product were investigated, including aging time of the RF gel, tin-to-formaldehyde molar ratio, resorcinol-to-carbonate molar ratio, and the aging time of the tin/RF mixed gel. Our experimental results showed that the interaction between the network of the RF gel and tin-containing sol is a key factor that affected the structural strength of the porous network and the porosity of the final product. Through control of the interactions in the tin/RF mixed gel we obtained porous tin dioxide materials that could be effectively used to form large-surface area films with desirable mesoporous properties.

Graphical abstract


Tin dioxide; Mesoporous; Resorcinol–formaldehyde gel; Synthesis